Pathology Such as epilepsy (falling sickness), has chronic. It is accompanied by spontaneous and intermittent convulsive seizures. Symptoms of this neurological disease affects the quality of life and patient safety. According to statistics, faced with it every hundredth inhabitant of the Earth.
Epileptic — a man who suffers from epilepsy. When any symptoms of this disease should immediately consult a doctor.
Causes of epilepsy in adults and children
Convulsive state is a complex reaction occurring in the organism under the influence of many factors. In medicine there is a term «convulsive». When the human body faces some stress, it responds by convulsions. For example, often occurs in intoxications and infectious diseases.
Link (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) : Epilepsy Data and Statistics
However, in the body of some people's readiness for convulsions increased. They have cramps in cases when people with normal health do not happen. Experts suggest that such a feature may be transmitted genetically. This assumption is the following evidence:
- in most cases, the disease occurs in people, including relatives of whom are epileptics;
- relatives of the majority of epileptics there is a violation, similar to the disease (migraine, alcohol dependence, enuresis, etc.);
- often develop the disease in identical twins.
Not Genetically transmitted disease and an increased susceptibility to its development. As they grow older convulsive change.
Pathology contribute to the following factors:
- disruption to a child's brain at birth;
- pathology metabolism in the brain;
- traumatic brain injury;
- chronic toxicity;
- infectious diseases;
- recent stroke;
- the presence of tumors in the brain;
- pathology of cerebral circulation (vascular epilepsy);
- alcohol abuse.
Treatment of epilepsy is selected depending on its classification.
Symptoms of epilepsy depending on its species
Disease accompanied by extensive convulsions. It begins suddenly. Classification of epilepsy determines the exact symptoms.
Symptoms of temporal lobe epilepsy
This form of disease develops due to several reasons. These include brain damage and injury at birth. The disease has the following features:
- abdominal symptoms (increased intestinal peristalsis, and pain in the region of the peritoneum, nausea);
- disorders of respiratory function;
- cardiac manifestations (pain in the heart area, increased heart rate, arrhythmia);
- abundant sweating;
- violation of chewing and swallowing;
- the deterioration of concentration, trouble remembering, panic attacks, increased anxiety;
- personality changes;
- vegetative disorders (arterial pressure jumps, the violation of the General regulation, Allergy symptoms, impaired fat and water-salt metabolism, etc.).
In most cases, the disease progresses gradually and is characterized by a chronic course.
French word «absence» translated into Russian language means «no» is epilepsy without seizures. The patient in this disease stands still and does not react to external conditions. This form of pathology has the following forms:
- the sudden sinking;
- close or faraway look;
- the continuation of the patient after an attack.
In most cases, this pathology is diagnosed in patients of 6-7 years, girls are twice as likely to encounter it than boys. The disease eventually disappears or is converted into another form.
This type of disease is the most common among pediatric patients. Most often it manifests itself in patients from 3 to 13 years. The peak of activity such idiopathic epilepsy have 7-8 years. It manifests itself in the following States:
- development paresthesias of the muscles of the pharynx, cheeks and larynx;
- numbness of tongue, cheeks, gums;
- development tonic-clonic convulsive States;
- problems with speech function;
- hypersalivation (increased salivation).
Most Often this hidden epilepsy manifests itself at night, so it is sometimes called night.
This form of the disease is accompanied by a combination of twitching in seizures. It is equally common in men and in women. In the diagnosis of myoclonic form in heart, liver and some other organs, there are deposits of carbohydrates.
The Disease develops in the period from 10 to 19 years, accompanied by periodic epileptic seizures. Somewhat later appear involuntary muscular contractions. In advanced stage the patient has a mental disorder.
This acquired epilepsy accompanied by seizures and is associated with impaired brain function resulting from traumatic brain injury.
Brain injuries At risk of developing this disease increases by 35-40%. The negative symptoms can occur even several years after injury.
This disease is a consequence of alcohol abuse. The disease manifests itself in the form of sudden seizures. The attack begins with a short-term loss of consciousness after which the patient's face becomes pale or cyanotic hue. In most cases the mouth during a seizure begins to stand out foam. The lower intensity of seizures the patient has clear consciousness, after which he falls into a deep sleep for 4-6 hours.
Alcoholic form of the disease is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- the muscles, feeling of compression of the skin;
- acute pain.
Most Often, the seizures occur within 2-4 days after cessation of drinking. Sometimes during attacks appear auditory and visual hallucinations, characteristic of alcoholism. The reason of disorders — the abuse of alcoholic beverages. Auxiliary development factors there may be atherosclerosis, infectious diseases, and traumatic brain injury.
Non-Convulsive epilepsy is accompanied by a sudden lapse of sanity. The duration of the attack can vary from 2-5 minutes to a few days.
On the background of disorders the patient may experience hallucinations and mental disorders, the patient may experience fear, but after that he forgets what is happening. Residual memories rare.
Epilepsy in children: symptoms
In minor patients symptoms of the disease are similar to symptoms observed in adults. However, it has some peculiarities. For example, in children the disease develops more frequently and for other reasons.
Main manifestations of pathology in juvenile patients:
- convulsions, manifested in the form of rhythmical muscular contractions throughout the body;
- short breath;
- bedwetting and fecal incontinence;
- increased muscle tension;
- disorderly movements of different body parts.
Epilepsy of newborns
In this situation the disease is accompanied by increased body temperature. Condition in newborns called intermittent form. The main reason for such a name — the nature of epileptic seizures: seizures are gradually moving to different parts of the body.
With this disease in newborns is not foaming and prokusyvanie language. Symptoms in infants
- loss of appetite;
- increased nervous excitability.
If there is any deviation from the norm, you should consult your pediatrician, who will talk about how dangerous epilepsy in this age, and will direct the patient to reception to narrow experts to confirm or refute the diagnosis.
First aid for epilepsy
With the appearance of an epileptic attack, the patient it is necessary to provide first medical aid:
- If the patient suddenly began to fall, it must be supported and placed gently on a flat surface, avoiding bumps.
- If the epileptic attack began suddenly in a potentially dangerous place, the patient will need to take the mouse and move to a safer area.
- the victim's Head should be kept in the raised position, resting on something soft.
- Under salivation of the victim should be laid on its side, so no liquid gets in the airway.
When deterioration and repeated attacks should call an ambulance. The treatment is performed in a hospital.
Diagnosis of epilepsy
Which doctor to be contacted when the suspected epilepsy
Therapy and detection of this disease deals with the neurologist. He asks the patient about the nature and frequency of occurrence of a disease and studying its history, examines the patient and makes the overall picture. Additionally can be assigned a psychiatric consultation.
On examination, the neurologist checks the reflexes of the patient:
- Knee. The patient puts one foot to another, after which the doctor hits with a special hammer on the area of the knee.
- Reflex two-headed shoulder muscles. The patient places his forearm on the table surface, whereupon the doctor gently hitting with a hammer on the elbow.
- Wrist. The doctor hits a hammer at the bone element that is in the area of the wrist joint.
If necessary, checked by ancillary reflexes. For example, sometimes ask patients to follow the eye movements of the hammer, to hold out hands and touch your nose etc
This test can detect brain damage that led to the development of the disease.
This survey is the main method allowing to identify the disease. It can help to establish the localization of the lesions.
In the functioning of the brain in its structures appear electromagnetic potentials responsible for the initiation of the individual sections. To define them using special equipment — an electroencephalograph.
The machine detects fluctuations in electromagnetic activity and displays them on paper in the form of curves.
Preparation for this survey involves the following:
- the examinee should not feel hunger.
- his emotional state should be stable;
- before the diagnosis is prohibited to use drugs sedative actions and other means influencing the Central nervous system.
Diagnostics can be performed in a special room, to avoid possible interference, because the EEG has a high sensitivity.
During the examination the patient takes a reclining position in the chair and relaxes. On his head is worn an electrode cap, which will be recorded electromagnetic pulses in the brain. During the procedure the patient does not feel any discomfort.
With the help of electroencephalograph can be identified:
- incorrect impulses to the brain;
- pathological lesions;
- the nature of the EEG curve in the intervals between epileptic attacks;
- penchant for development of the disease.
The examination can also determine the readiness for convulsions. For this purpose, the doctor asks the individual to make frequent and deep breaths.
Other studies that may be prescribed for people with epilepsy
To confirm the diagnosis the doctor may refer the patient to other types of surveys. The most common are:
- MRI and CT. These tests allow to reveal cranial injuries, tumors, displacement of brain structures and other violations.
- Angiography. Allows to determine the pathology of the cerebral circulation.
- Echoencephalogram. Allows to detect the presence of tumors inside the skull and displacement of brain structures.
In addition, the patient may be administered additional consultations of specialists:
- Psychiatrist. It should be visited if there are convulsions in the presence of alcoholism and drug addiction.
- Toxicologist. To the specialist should be treated, if spasmodic symptoms caused by chronic intoxication.
- Neurosurgeon. This examiner refer patients with suspected presence of brain tumor.
- a Psychiatrist. Consult this physician is appointed in personality disorders.
Diagnostic Methods are selected individually by the attending doctor.
Treatment of epilepsy
Tools for drug therapy should be prescribed only by a doctor. It is necessary to consider following principles:
- main therapeutic means — medication anticonvulsant actions;
- dosage and the regimen set by the doctor;
- even when no seizures are forbidden to draw conclusions about recovery;
- the doctor should monitor the administration of drugs;
- undo the drugs must only at the direction of a specialist;
- purpose of drug therapy — to achieve a recovery in the abolition of drugs.
In addition, to treat the disease can be prescribed tranquilizers and neuroleptics. These medications relax the muscles and inhibit the activity of the Central nervous system. Additionally, prescribed diuretics, intended to relieve swelling of the brain, which part develops on the background of seizures.
About surgical treatments for epilepsy
Surgery is indicated for lack of positive dynamics from taking drugs. With surgery you can achieve quick and positive action and to reduce the frequency of seizures or to stop them. However, this technique is not suitable for every patient.
The possibility of surgical therapy depend on the following factors:
- type of the disease — the surgical treatment susceptible to seizures of the partial type;
- localization of the affected area;
- location of brain areas responsible for basic functions — the doctor must ensure that they are not damaged by disease.
In this pathology can be carried out different operations. This files most often is assigned to the following:
- excision of pathological neoplasms;
- stimulation of the vagus nerve;
Folk and non-traditional methods of treatment of epilepsy
Means of alternative medicine should be used only as a Supplement to the basic treatment. The most effective among them show the procedures of acupuncture and osteopathy.
Also, can benefit from regular bathing in the tincture of the forest of hay. These baths have a calming effect. To improve the condition recommended every morning to walk in the dew. This allows you to activate the bioactive areas of the foot.
Prevention of this disease involves the exception of poisoning, traumatic brain injury, and infectious pathologies. When any deviations from the norm should immediately go to the hospital.